What is a service line?

water service lines
Service lines are the pipes that transport water from the water main in the street to homes. 

The City of Conway Public Utilities
 regularly tests your drinking water for a wide range of physical, microbiological, and chemical contaminants. You can learn more about these on our Water Quality page. It’s one of our key responsibilities to ensure your water is safe. 

Lead is one of the contaminants we test for regularly, as its health impacts are serious. Fortunately, we know a lot about lead — how to find it and how to reduce or eliminate its hazards. Water utilities can pinpoint and eliminate sources of lead in their systems but drinking water may still be contaminated by lead in home plumbing pipes and fixtures.


The EPA’s ‘Get the Lead Out’ InitiativeUS-EPA-Logo

In 1991, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) enacted the Lead and Copper Rule (LCR), which regulates lead and copper levels in public drinking water. It requires us to regularly test for both in our distribution systems.

As no level of lead is considered safe, the EPA has set a Maximum Contaminant Level Goal (MCLG) of 0 ppb (parts per billion), with an Action Level of 15 ppb – the level at which utilities must notify the public and take appropriate actions to reduce concentrations.

In 2021, the EPA revised the LCR, requiring water utilities to identify where customer owned lead service lines exist. One way we're doing this is through the Lead Service Line Survey, which we encourage all customers to complete as soon as possible.

One of the most common sources of lead in drinking water are Lead Service Lines (LSLs) – the pipes that connect private plumbing systems to public watermains. These are typically the responsibility of the property owner. Finding and removing LSLs is a key goal of the revised LCR and will require a coordinated effort between utilities and customers to “Get the lead out”. 

City of Conway Lead Test and Survey 

Watch the video below or follow the written steps below to perform a visual inspection of your water service line to determine what it’s made of. Then complete the Lead Service Line Survey.

Safety First!

Exclamation Pictogram Yield SignWhen working in unfamiliar and restrictive spaces, please ensure the area is well lit, wear appropriate clothing, and use head protection in areas with low ceilings.

Lead Test Steps: 

STEP 1: Locate the water service line entering the building. This is typically found on front or side exterior. A valve is installed on the pipe after the point of entry. Identify a test area on the pipe between the point where it enters the building and the valve. If the pipe is covered or wrapped, expose a small area of metal.

STEP 2: Scratch Test. If the water service line is PVC, then you do not have a lead pipe and do not need to perform a scratch test. If the water service line is metal please perform a scratch test. Scratch the surface of the pipe. Use the flat edge of a screwdriver to scratch through any corrosion that may have built up on the outside of the pipe. 

  • Scratch Test – If the scraped area is shiny and silver, the pipe is lead. If the scratched area is copper in color, you have a copper pipe. If the scratched area is a dull gray, the pipe is galvanized steel. 
  • Magnet Test – A magnet will not stick to a lead or copper pipe. If a strong magnet does stick to the pipe, the pipe is galvanized steel.
STEP 3: Complete THIS ONLINE SURVEY that will be included in the City of Conway Public Utilities Water Service Line Inventory. 

Lead in Drinking Water

Lead and Human Healthlead-pb-periodic-table-element

Lead is a metal found in underground rock formations, but lead from this source rarely appears in drinking water, and only in trace concentrations. Lead contamination of our environment is almost always the result of human activities, and in drinking water, occurs somewhere between its source and your tap.

Lead is poisonous to most large organisms. The human body has difficulty eliminating lead, so it accumulates over time in tissues and organs and causes a variety of serious conditions. Infants and children can have decreases in IQ and attention span, and it can cause new learning and behavior problems or exacerbate existing ones. The children of women who are exposed to lead before or during pregnancy can have increased risk of these adverse health effects. Adults can have increased risks of heart disease, high blood pressure, kidney or nervous system problems.

How Lead Gets into Drinking Water

Lead in drinking water is primarily from materials and components associated with service lines and home plumbing. Conway Public Utilities is responsible for providing high quality drinking water and removing lead pipes, but cannot control the variety of materials used in plumbing components in your home. You share the responsibility for protecting yourself and your family from the lead in your home plumbing. You can take responsibility by identifying and removing lead materials within your home plumbing and taking steps to reduce your family’s risk. Before drinking tap water, flush your pipes for several minutes by running your tap, taking a shower, doing laundry or a load of dishes. You can also use a filter certified by an American National Standards Institute accredited certifier to reduce lead in drinking water. If you are concerned about lead in your water and wish to have your water tested, please contact us. Information on lead in drinking water, testing methods, and steps you can take to minimize exposure is available at the EPA's Lead in Drinking Water website.

Older household plumbing (pre-1990s) may contain lead in water service lines, lead solders, and plumbing fixtures (particularly those made of brass). Galvanized iron pipes, common prior to the 1960s, can also attract lead particles and then release them into the water as they corrode. As all these components age, greater amounts of lead leach into the water, particularly when water is left standing in pipes for long periods. It’s also possible for larger lead particles to dislodge and enter drinking water.

In the U.S., the use of lead in household plumbing products has been steadily reduced or eliminated since the late 1980s. As such, homes built or renovated after this time have a lower likelihood of lead contamination, however; the only way to be entirely sure is with proper testing.

How Do I Know if I Have Lead in my Drinking Water?

Lead in drinking water is odorless, colorless, and tasteless, so the only way of knowing if your home’s plumbing contains lead is: 1) inspection of your plumbing, covered below; or 2) sampling and laboratory testing. 

If you think your home has been tested before, the property owner would have received a letter of notification with laboratory test results. If no such letter exists, assume your water hasn’t been tested. Lead contamination is home-specific, so even if a neighbor has been tested, their results may be different from yours.

Reducing Exposure to Lead in Drinking WaterNSF Logo

In the absence of test results, there are some things you can do to reduce your exposure if you think your home’s plumbing may have lead.

  • When water hasn’t been used for several hours, run all taps used for drinking and cooking. The flushing process could take from 30 seconds to 2 minutes or longer until it becomes cold or reaches a steady temperature. This will help flush lead-containing water from pipes. To conserve water, use this flushing water for washing, or watering plants, as lead in drinking water is only hazardous when ingested.
  • Never use hot tap water for drinking, cooking, or making baby formula. Hot water dissolves and carries lead more easily.
  • Boiling water won’t remove lead and may even increase its concentration. Aside to filtering, there’s nothing that can be done or added to drinking water to remove lead.
  • Water Filters: There are a wide variety of water filters on the market – from simple pour-through pitcher style filters to professionally installed plumbed-in filter systems. Some filters can remove lead, but if you’re considering this route, be sure to choose one that is tested and certified. We recommend those certified by NSF International. Regardless of the type, be sure you replace filtering media and maintain the filter according to manufacturer's instructions.

These measures should be considered temporary. You should do a visual lead test (below), and have your water tested as soon as possible.

Government Resources


Phone Help Lines

  • National Lead Information Center: 1-800-424-LEAD
  • EPA Safe Drinking Water Hotline: 1-800-426-4791